沁阳| 双鸭山| 镇原| 徐水| 芦山| 洞头| 渭源| 静宁| 湘乡| 积石山| 金沙| 秀屿| 赞皇| 嘉义县| 威信| 巴东| 谷城| 礼泉| 奈曼旗| 孟连| 蒙自| 阿勒泰| 盖州| 崇州| 岳西| 尚义| 林西| 安泽| 临海| 遂川| 横县| 杨凌| 周至| 莒南| 苗栗| 若尔盖| 乐陵| 杭州| 图们| 盐田| 新宾| 台儿庄| 上蔡| 黑河| 武邑| 依安| 冕宁| 昌都| 柘荣| 郎溪| 元谋| 彭水| 襄城| 姜堰| 兰考| 翁源| 徐水| 北京| 沙雅| 牡丹江| 宜宾县| 衡东| 九寨沟| 清丰| 芦山| 华县| 白河| 庆阳| 丰润| 调兵山| 钟祥| 碾子山| 和顺| 旺苍| 高明| 垦利| 山亭| 大邑| 广昌| 吉安县| 珊瑚岛| 安康| 榆社| 武清| 上虞| 龙南| 花莲| 班玛| 土默特左旗| 枞阳| 平坝| 鄄城| 汾西| 赤峰| 武隆| 宁国| 成安| 蒙自| 无为| 定边| 泾川| 通山| 布尔津| 平泉| 浦口| 武当山| 沈丘| 大埔| 大方| 宜宾县| 长春| 青龙| 来安| 林州| 东乡| 望谟| 黄岩| 长兴| 单县| 蕉岭| 长白山| 铜陵县| 冷水江| 崇礼| 墨竹工卡| 阿勒泰| 宁德| 武冈| 忻城| 下陆| 顺平| 乌达| 天池| 五营| 武鸣| 无为| 陕县| 环江| 从江| 盐池| 鸡东| 绥中| 定结| 隆子| 巴青| 岐山| 长宁| 灵台| 忻州| 贵阳| 孟村| 松原| 石林| 宿豫| 延庆| 依兰| 张家口| 都江堰| 淳化| 西山| 新化| 畹町| 蒙山| 大竹| 围场| 明溪| 新荣| 木垒| 昌黎| 宁蒗| 新都| 集安| 零陵| 施甸| 郾城| 潮州| 海晏| 麻城| 屯留| 涠洲岛| 宾川| 八宿| 郁南| 台江| 南城| 金佛山| 郏县| 志丹| 上蔡| 广河| 台湾| 冠县| 翁源| 东方| 且末| 商丘| 登封| 龙州| 武城| 新宾| 云林| 樟树| 镇平| 称多| 恭城| 肇源| 汶上| 麦积| 河南| 长海| 四方台| 墨玉| 巴彦淖尔| 湘阴| 偏关| 长汀| 萨嘎| 岑巩| 霍城| 双柏| 永定| 凤阳| 涟水| 色达| 双城| 五莲| 翼城| 通河| 元江| 松滋| 台北市| 清镇| 靖州| 海安| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 吉木乃| 常德| 泗县| 南部| 永德| 揭东| 绥阳| 榆社| 崇信| 鲁山| 武城| 巫山| 玉树| 资源| 水富| 舒城| 遂宁| 琼山| 通道| 阳新| 望谟| 彭泽| 青岛| 五大连池| 峰峰矿| 本溪满族自治县| 鹤山| 来宾|

动力电池迎“退役”小高峰 二次利用百亿级市场待开发

2019-08-22 03:52 来源:中新网

  动力电池迎“退役”小高峰 二次利用百亿级市场待开发

  ArareImperialQianlongporcelainvase(18thcentury)isdisplayedatSothebysauctioncompanyinParis,onMay22,,whichwasstoredinashoeboxinanatticfordecades,willbesoldatSothebysParisonJune.(Photo/Agencies)ArareImperialQianlong(18thcentury)porcelainvaseisdisplayedatSothebysauctioncompanyinParis,onMay22,,whichwasstoredinashoeboxinanatticfordecades,willbesoldatSothebysParisonJune.(Photo/Agencies)ArareImperialQianlongporcelainvase(18thcentury)isdisplayedatSothebysauctioncompanyinParis,onMay22,,whichwasstoredinashoeboxinanatticfordecades,willbesoldatSothebysParisonJune.(Photo/Agencies)ArareImperialQianlongporcelainvase(18thcentury)isdisplayedatSothebysauctioncompanyinParis,onMay22,,whichwasstoredinashoeboxinanatticfordecades,willbesoldatSothebysParisonJune.(Photo/Agencies)ArareImperialQianlongporcelainvase(18thcentury)isdisplayedatSothebysauctioncompanyinParis,onMay22,,whichwasstoredinashoeboxinanatticfordecades,willbesoldatSothebysParisonJune.(Photo/Agencies)Areplicaofacolorfulbrocadeembroideredwiththetext“WuxingChuDongfangLiZhongguo”,whichliterarymeans"Fivestarsriseintheeast,benefittingZhongguo”andwasunearthedinOctober1995attheNiyaruinsinXinjiangUygurAutonomousRegion,isondisplayattheChinaSilkMuseuminHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,May20,loomrecreatedonthebaseofremainsfoundintheLaoguanshanTombofHanDynasty(206BC220AD)inChengduCityin2012.(Photo/VCG)Areplicaofacolorfulbrocadeembroideredwiththetext“WuxingChuDongfangLiZhongguo”,whichliterarymeans"Fivestarsriseintheeast,benefittingZhongguo”andwasunearthedinOctober1995attheNiyaruinsinXinjiangUygurAutonomousRegion,isondisplayattheChinaSilkMuseuminHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,May20,loomrecreatedonthebaseofremainsfoundintheLaoguanshanTombofHanDynasty(206BC220AD)inChengduCityin2012.(Photo/VCG)Areplicaofacolorfulbrocadeembroideredwiththetext“WuxingChuDongfangLiZhongguo”,whichliterarymeans"Fivestarsriseintheeast,benefittingZhongguo”andwasunearthedinOctober1995attheNiyaruinsinXinjiangUygurAutonomousRegion,isondisplayattheChinaSilkMuseuminHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,May20,loomrecreatedonthebaseofremainsfoundintheLaoguanshanTombofHanDynasty(206BC220AD)inChengduCityin2012.(Photo/VCG)Areplicaofacolorfulbrocadeembroideredwiththetext“WuxingChuDongfangLiZhongguo”,whichliterarymeans"Fivestarsriseintheeast,benefittingZhongguo”andwasunearthedinOctober1995attheNiyaruinsinXinjiangUygurAutonomousRegion,isondisplayattheChinaSilkMuseuminHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,May20,loomrecreatedonthebaseofremainsfoundintheLaoguanshanTombofHanDynasty(206BC220AD)inChengduCityin2012.(Photo/VCG)

AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)AsleepingcontestisheldinSeoulForestinSouthKorea,May27,,500peopleappliedtojointhecontestforitsthirdedition,withthelongestsleeperthewinner.(Photo/VCG)夫妻一方在婚姻关系存续期间以个人名义超出家庭日常生活需要所负的债务(debtsincurredbyaspouseforusebeyondthescopeofthefamilysdailyneeds),债权人以属于夫妻共同债务为由主张权利的,人民法院不予支持,但债权人能够证明该债务用于夫妻共同生活、共同生产经营或者基于夫妻双方共同意思表示的除外(unlessthecreditorcanprovethedebthasbeenusedforthefamily,commonproductionorbusinessorincurredwithmutualconsent)。

  CitiesacrossChinaareimplementingpreferentialpoliciestoattractforeigntalentin2018,withtheeasterncityofHangzhouoffering100millionyuan($),capitalofEastChinasZhejiangProvince,tostartabusinessthatfitsthedevelopmentofthecitysindustrycanreceivefundsrangingfrom200,000to5millionyuan,igntalentsstayinthecity,inclpital,rityandsupporttoforeigntalent,obalstrategywiththeBeltandRoadinitiative,thecountryneedsmoreforeigntalentthanever,LinXinqi,aresearchfellowattheNationalAcademyofDevelopmentandStrategyinRenminUniversityofChina,tighteningimmigrationpoliciesamidtheanti-globalizationtrend,,NorthChinasHebeiProvincehasvowedtooffer10millionyuaninresearchfundinganda2millionyuansettling-inallowancetoacademiciansindevelopedcountriesandscholarswhohavebeengiveninternationalawards,,YunnanProvincewilladoptanewvisapolicytheconomiesfurtherdevelopamidChinasindustrytransferprocess,theirmomentumtoattractforeigntalentmightsurpassthatinfirst-tiercities,localdevelopmentconditionsinsteadofturningitintoaviciouscompetition,hinainOctober2017saidthattalentisastrategicresourceforChinaasitaimstoachievenationalrejuvenationandstayaheadofinternationalcompetition.  SouthKoreaandtheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)onThursdaystartedgeneral-levelmilitarytalksatthebordervillageofPanmunjomtoeasemilitarytensions,,thefirstofitskindinover10years,(0100GMT)inTongilgak,,asenior-levelof,composedoffivedelegates,omthathewilldiscusswithhisDPRKcounterpartissuesontheeasingofinter-Koreanmilitaryteeinter-Koreanmilitarycommunicationschannel,theregularly-heldmilitarytalksbetwee

  Chineseuniversitiesshouldenhancelibrarystudiestobuildscienceandtechnologymajorssoftpower,suggestsZengYong,amemberofthe13thNationalCommitteeoftheChinesePoliticalConsultativeConference,,alsovice-presidentoftheUniversityofElectronicScienceandTechnologyofChina,toldChinaDailywebsitethathehadnoticedmostgraduatesmighthave"goodenough"skills,whichcomposedtheir"hardpower",butthereisagapbetweenthemandtop-levelinnovators."Chinastilllacksleadinginnovativetalentsinmanydisciplines,",includingChineseandWesternphilosophies,comprise13creditsnow,accountingforaboutone-tenthoftheentirecreditsneededforascienceandtechnologymajortograduatefromhisuniversity,saidZeng,,Zengalsomadeaformalproposalonenhan,whichisstillnotpartofthecompulsoryeducation,isespeciallyimportantforreducingpoverty."Educationisthelong-termmechanismforliftingpeopleoutofpoverty,aswecouldseemoreandmorepeoplehavebecomebetteroffafterreceivinghighereducation,"Zengsaid."However,therearestilldifficultiesforethnicminoritystudentstodoverywellatcollegeastheyhavenotreceivedgoodbasiceducationbeforeenteringuniversities,especiallybilingualeducation,"ucationinethnicminorityregions,lawmakersshouldincludesucheducationinthecompulsoryeducation,andthecentralgovernmentshouldsupporttheseregionsfinanciallysothattheycouldenhanceteacherscapabilities.  PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)

PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)PicturetakenonMay24,2018showsaviewinsidepassengerferrySewolinMokpo,ssouthwesterncoastonApril16,2014,killingmorethan300people.(Photo/IC)

  【相关词汇】jointestate/commonwealth/mutualproperty共同财产pre-maritalproperty婚前财产prenuptialagreement婚前协议divisionofproperty财产分割divorceproceeding离婚诉讼divorcesettlement离婚协议书forgeddebt伪造债务

  Infact,redis,we,80%oftheinformationourbrainsprocessonadailybasiscomesfromoureyes.事实上,红色是现代少数几种被世界上各种文化视为积极的颜色之一,难怪企业标志如此青睐红色,我们毕竟都是视觉动物。Ablue-and-whiteporcelainwatercontaineroftheQingDynastyisamongtheexhibitsonshow.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)Ashipwreckislikeamuseum-atimecapsulefilledwithstoriesofthepeopleaboard,estori:ShipwrecksandExportedPorcelainontheMaritimeSilkRoadopenedatthemuseuminLingangNewCity,asatellitetowninsuburbanShanghai,tionsacrossChina,,bytheTangDynasty(618-907),internationaltradeflourished,carryingporcelainandsilkfromChinatotheArabianPeninsula,JapanandtheKoreanPeninsula,"wealthsharedbyallhumanity",saidWangLijun,directoroftheNingboMuseuminZhejiangProvince,attheexhibition,"wehopetopromotecommunicationandplayanactivepartinthebuildingoftheBeltandRoadInitiative".TheexhibitionattheChinaMaritimeMuseuminShanghaifeaturesmorethan240objectsandmodels(above)relatedtoancientship-buildingtechniques.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)TheexhibitionwasjointlycreatedbytheChinaMaritimeMuseum,theNanjingMuseumAdmi,andthenattheNingboMuseumfromJan19toApril8."Shanghaiisthefinalstopforourexhibition,"saysCaoZhijun,directoroftheNanjingMuseumAdministration."Wereceived220,000visitorsinNanjingand170,000inNingbo."Theexhibitionthattookustwoyearstoputr."sYangzhoutoaharborinIraqandsankaroundtheyear830,ilmanWalterfang,,000objectsweresalvagedfromtheshipwreck,dthat"theBatuHitamshipwreckisakintoamuseum"."Ittellsaboutthetechnologyofporcelainmakingintheninthcentury,andhownewforms,patternsandmethodsweredevelopedbecauseofinternationaltrade,"240objectsandmodels(above)relatedtoancientship-buildingtechniques.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)Tradealsoacceleratedtheimprovementofporcelain-makingtechniques,hesaysatalectureontheexhibition,henotes,Chinasblue-and-whitepotteryreachedaveryhightechnologicalandartisticlevelinthe15thcentury,andp,theexhibitionalsofeaturesmodelsoftheshipsandvideorecordingsoftheexcavationsanddevices,allowingvisitorstolearnaboutancientship-buildingtechniques,seavoyagesandceramicstrading."WehopetheexhibitionwillimprovepeoplesunderstandingoftheancientMaritimeSilkRoadandinspiremorecommunicationamongdifferentcountriestoday,"saysWangYu,,whichopenedin2010,showcasesChinasrichmaritimehistory,navigation,:-,May8-Aug7,,LingangNewCity,Pudong,240objectsandmodels(above)relatedtoancientship-buildingtechniques.(PhotoprovidedtoChinaDaily)

  ChenHeshengshowsaminiaturethermoswhichisasbigasafingernail.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)ChenHesheng,69,is,,,(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AminiaturewoodenwheelbarrowmadebyChenHesheng.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)ChenHeshengshowsaminiaturewoodenspinningwheel.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)ChenHeshengmakeswoodenitemsusingasawwhichhehasusedfor52years.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)ChenHeshengshowsaminiaturewoodenbench.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AminiatureteastovemadebyChenHesheng.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)

  ShahuLakeinNingxiaHuiautonomousregion,May22,2018.()Onasummerevening,whenmildwindblows,,oneofthetop10des,,,May22,2018.()Thelakeisnotonlyanestforbirds,,visitorscantryspeedboatingandparasailingonthelake,,asafilmingspotforthe1995movieAChineseOdyssey,attractsalarge,May22,2018.()AcampatthebeachneartheShahuLakeinNingxiaHuiautonomousregion,May22,2018.()ShahuLakeinNingxiaHuiautonomousregion,May22,2018.()ShahuLakeinNingxiaHuiautonomousregion,May23,2018.()AvisitortriesparasailingontheShahuLakeinNingxiaHuiautonomousregion,May23,2018.()AftermeetinghimattheElyseePalace,PresidentEmmanuelMacronsaidhewouldbemadeanaturalisedcitizen.法国总统马克龙在爱丽舍宫接见了他,并表示将给予他法国公民身份。

  ContestantstakepartinadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)ContestantstakepartinadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)ContestantstakepartinadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)ContestantswavehandsbeforeadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)ContestantstakepartinadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)ContestantstakepartinadragonboatmatchatawaterparkofHuichanglakeinWenzhou,eastChinasZhejiangProvince,May26,2018.(Xinhua/SuQiaojiang)

  PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)PhototakenonMay25,2018showstulipsinsnowattheJiangbulakesceneryspotinQitaiCounty,northwestChinasXinjiangUyghurAutonomousRegion,May25,(Xinhua/GaoJing)

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.MajorLeagueBaseballandTencentHoldingsLimitedhaveformedanewstrateg,aleadingproviderofcomprehensiveInternetServicesinChina,alsowillsupportandbro,Tencentwilllivestream125gamesincludingMLBJewelEventsonanexclusivebasisinthecountryonTencentPC,,TencentsschedulewilllaunchwithSuperBaseballWeek,fiveconsecutivedaysofgamesfeaturingsomeofbaseballstopstarsincludingMikeTrout,FranciscoLindor,KrisBryant,,TencentwilllivestreamregularseasongamesonWednesday,Thursday,SaturdayandSundayaswellastheAll-StarGamepresentedbyMastercard,T-MobileHomeRunDerby,ncludingMLBBest,MLBVideoClipsandaChineseversionofThisWeekinBaseball."Tencenthascontinuedtocollaboratewiththeworldstopsportsleaguessecuringbroadcastrightsforbasketball,soccer,tennis,wintersports,footballandnowbaseball,"saidTencentVicePresidentCaitlynChen."Inrecentyears,baseballhasdevelopedrapidlyinChina,whichwouldnthappenwithoutMLB,withtheadvantageofTencentsproductionandbroadcasting,refinedoperationalexcellenceandpowerfulsocialplatforms,wewillbringtheattentiontoMLBandbaseballinChinatoanewlevel."Aspartofthebroadalliance,TencentwillworkcloselywiththeleaguetohelpgrowbaseballinChinabysupportingandstreamingMLB,abaseballroadsh,TencentwillbroadcasttheMLBrealityshowPerfectPitch,CollegeLeaguegames,theMLBPlayBall!DiamondCupandotherMLBPlayBall!youthevents."AsMLBcontinuestoexpandtheparticipation,viewingandengagementofbaseballinChina,itiscriticaltopartnerwiththebestorganizationsinthecountrytoformmutuallybeneficialco-operations,"saidJimSmall,MLBVicePresident,AsiaPacific."WearethrilledtoteamwithTencent,thelargestandbestdistributorofdigitals,showsandeventsthatTencentwillstreamwillentertainmillionsofsportsfansinChinaandhelpcontinuetogrowthesport."Tencentwillsup,,TencentwilldevelopandhostanMLBFanClubwherefansacrossChinacandiscuss,debateandcelebrateallaspectsofMajorLeagueBaseball.  

  

  动力电池迎“退役”小高峰 二次利用百亿级市场待开发

 
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图文切换>正文

山水画鉴赏六点,不想懂画都难!

2019-08-22 17:53 | 天杭艺粹 | 手机看国搜 | 打印 | 收藏 |评论 | 扫描到手机
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核心提示:山水画是国画门类里面技法最成熟、取得成就最高的画种,也是藏家投资收藏的首选画种,因此具备一定的山水画鉴赏知识,对于做字画的人来说,是一项很重要的功课。

山水画是国画门类里面技法最成熟、取得成就最高的画种,也是藏家投资收藏的首选画种,因此具备一定的山水画鉴赏知识,对于做字画的人来说,是一项很重要的功课。

崔如琢《秋烟漠漠雨萌萌》 

可以从以下六个方面来加以识别:

一.从构图来看。与风景照片相比,山水画的构图是经过画家苦心经营的。因此一幅好的山水画,必须有好的构图。好的构图一般要符合以下两个规律:

1、对立统一规律。体现在形式上有宾主、呼应、虚实 、疏密、开合、藏露、节韵等关系。

  • 宾主。构图要主次分明,不能喧宾夺主。

  • 呼应。画中一切物体(包括题款和印章),都要互相关联,有呼有应。这样才能气脉贯通。

  • 林风眠 秋山图

  • 虚实。传统山水画常把云和水作留白处理。白与黑,空与物,白与灰,灰与黑,就是虚实的对比。但实处要实而不塞,要透气,要有“活眼”。如林风眠《秋山图》和张大千《山雨欲来图》,如无中间的“活眼”,就是一盘“死棋”。虚处要虚而不空,即使是空白,也要让它表示一种实体,既所谓“计白当黑”,这样才能“虚实相生,无画处皆成妙境”。如宋代赵芾《江山万里图》,中间大片的留白,通过几只小船,却表现了迷茫辽阔、江山万里的意境。

  • 赵芾 江山万里图卷 局部

  • 疏密。山水画构图最忌均匀整齐,古人说:“疏处可走马,密处不通风。”这样才能变化多姿。

  • 藏露。画要给人留有想象的余地,一览无余,就没有情趣了。因此作画要善于运用“藏”的方法。郭熙说:“山欲高,尽出之则不高,烟霞锁其腰,则高矣。”“藏”,使人感到高深莫测,从而给观者想象的空间,这就是“藏”的妙用。如张大千《巫峡清秋图》和《黄海归来步步云》。

  • 张大千 黄海归来步步云

  • 开合。开与合是相对的矛盾。有对立,画面才生动。开而不合,就会显得不稳和散乱。有开有合,才能相对稳定。

  • 节韵。即节奏与韵律。一幅好的山水画,是有节奏美和韵律美的。这不仅体现在勾、皴、擦、染、点等笔法的运用上,也体现在整体的布局上,既要有变化又要有规律。如石涛《淮扬洁秋图》,画中的点既有大小、疏密、浓淡的变化,整体上又有一定的规律。

  • 石涛 淮扬洁秋图

    2、透视规律。西洋画一般采用“焦点透视”,中国画采用的是“散点透视”,也叫“移动透视”。“焦点透视”就象照相一样,观察者固定在一个立足点上,只能把视域以内的东西拍摄下来。“散点透视”则是移动着立足点来进行观察的,所以不受视域的限制。宋代郭熙在《林泉高致》中,把中国山水画的透视归纳为“三远”,即“高远”、“深远”、“平远”。值得注意的是,在一张山水画中,往往是“三远”综合运用的。

  • 高远。“自山下而仰山巅,谓之高远。”也有一种说法叫作“虫视”,即故意把自己放在低处,看什么都是高大雄伟、气势磅礴,这种透视法宜于描绘崇山峻岭。如北宋范宽的《溪山行旅图》和近代黄宾虹的《山水图》:

  • 范宽 溪山行旅图

  • 深远。“自山前而窥山后,谓之深远。”这是站在山前或山上远眺,并要移动视点才能看到的景象。这种透视法宜于表现幽深的意境。如张大千的《水阁清凉图》、清代王翚的《万壑千崖图》:

  • 王翚 万壑千崖图

  • 平远。“自近山而望远山,谓之平远。”这是在“平视”中所得的远近关系。宜于表现坦荡开阔的南方山水。如元代倪瓒的《秋色图》和《容膝斋图》:

倪瓒 容膝斋图

    二.从笔墨来看。用笔与用墨,是学习国画首先要解决的的问题,是最能体现画家功底的问题,因此也是识别一张国画优劣的最主要的依据之一。

    1、用笔。中国画的造形达意,是以线为主来表现的。因此看一幅国画用笔的好坏,主要是看这幅画中线条的好坏。古人提出“书法用笔”,即要求画家在作画时要象写书法一样用笔。黄宾虹总结了前人的经验,提出了“五笔”之说,即“平、圆、留、重、变”。

  • “平”,是指运笔时用力均匀,起讫分明,笔笔送到,要“如锥画沙”。

  • “圆”,是指行笔转折处要圆而有力,不妄生圭角,要如“折钗股”。

  • “留”,是指运笔要含蓄,要有回旋,不浮不滑,要“如屋漏痕”。

  • “重”,即沉着而有重量,要“如高山坠石”。

  • “变”,一是指用笔要有变化,中锋、侧锋、逆锋、顺锋,根据需要随机应变;二是指运笔要彼此相让,互相呼应,气势连贯。宋代韩拙提出:“用笔有三病:一曰板、二曰刻、三曰结。”所谓“板”,是指线条扁平,没有圆浑的立体感。所谓“刻”,是指笔划过于显露,妄生圭角。所谓“结”,是指行笔犹豫,线条不流畅。其他还有枯、弱、光滑、草率等,都是山水画用笔的病忌。

  • 黄宾虹 青城山中坐雨

    2.用墨。墨色的变化,有“五彩”之说,即“焦、浓、重、淡、清”;也有“六色”之说,即“干、湿、浓、淡、黑、白”。不论是那种说法,无非就是讲墨色的变化多端。山水画用墨有三要:厚,透明,丰富。

  • “厚”,就是感觉要厚重而不轻薄。

  • “透明”,就是层次要清楚,不浑浊,不僵化。

  • “丰富”,就是指墨色多变,层次丰富。总之,看一幅山水画的用墨好不好,主要是看用墨是否有变化、有韵味,层次是否清楚、丰富,能不能表现物象的立体感、质感和远近的空间感。如黄宾虹《青城山色图》、徐悲鸿《墨笔山水图》、赵春秋《板桥斜过小溪来》:

  • 徐悲鸿 墨笔山水图

    三.从用色来看。传统国画着色多从物体固有的本色出发,很少考虑光的影响和变化,所以用色相对西洋画来说比较单纯,具有清新明快的特点。根据山水画不同的种类,用色的要求也有所不同。水墨山水根本不用色,就不说了。

    在淡彩山水中,以水墨为主,色彩只起辅助作用,用色要求“淡雅”、“清透”。要“墨不碍色,色不碍墨”。即墨足之处用色要清淡、透明,不让色覆盖了墨;浓的色彩要用在墨少之处,不让墨破坏了色的清丽。这样,二者才能相得益彰。如李可染《千岩竞秀万壑争流图》、潘天寿《雨后千山铁铸成》:

    李可染 千岩竞秀万壑争流图

    在重彩山水中,用色要求浑厚凝重而不腻浊,清丽鲜明而不单薄。如张大千《仿张僧繇设色山水图》和《远蜂看黛图》:

    张大千 仿张僧繇设色山水图

    在泼彩山水中,用色要求色墨浑融,变化丰富,不脏不浊。如张大千《春山积翠图》。不管是淡彩、重彩还是泼彩,用色都要有一个主调,不能混乱、花俏。但在主调中又要求变化,不能单调、呆板。总之,既要有对比又要和谐统一。

    四.从表现各种物象的技法来看。山水画的技法很多,使用哪种技法,因物而异,因人而异,因画而异。看一张画中的技法用得好不好,主要是看这种技法在这张画中,是否能充分表现对象的“形”与“神”,是否能充分表达作者的“意”。

    五.从意境来看。好的山水画,要有美的意境。意境是山水画的灵魂。一幅画,必须给观者留有联想和再创造的余地,能使观者受到感染并引发自身生活感受的共鸣,感到言外意,弦外音,境外味,才算是有意境。山水画意境的类型,可分为三种情况:

  • 以景胜。这类作品比较注重写实,以真实感人的空间境象构成意境,把理想和感情融入实景之中,主要是通过境象自身诱发观者联想。它类似于诗的“无我之境”。这类画,在古代山水画中以宋画居多,如刘松年《秋窗读易图》:

  • 刘松年 秋窗读易图

  • 以意胜。这类作品比较注重写意,富有个性和情致,更明显地流露出对主观情感的表达,所塑造的空间境象,更多地具有了“意造”的成分。对于“形”则要求“在似与不似之间”。它类似于诗的“有我之境”。这类画自元代以后,逐渐成为山水画的主流。如元代倪瓒的《秋亭嘉树图》和吴镇的《松泉图》,近代齐白石的《还家图》等等。

  • 倪瓒 秋亭嘉树图

  • 意与境浑。这是感情与形象高度结合,达到“情景交融”、“天人合一”的境界。王国维说:“至意境两浑,则唯太白、后主、正中数人足以当之。”可见对于诗来说,这是意境的最高境界了。而对于画来说,当是画家神来之笔的得意杰作了。

  • 六.从“画外工夫”来看。所谓“画外工夫”,是指画家除了绘画以外的,其他方面的修养。一幅好的山水画,常常是诗、书、画、印的完美结合。从画的落款和印章上,可以看出作者在文学、书法和用印等方面的修养。

    (本文系天杭艺粹授权转载)

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